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Upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

For the full luminosity upgrade of LHC, called HL-LHC around 2025 a complete new Inner Tracker (ITk) is necessary to cope with the increased luminosity of 5 x 1035 cm-2s-1. In this context also a new pixel detector has to be developed which can fulfill the challenging requirements like a total integrated luminosity of 3000 fB-1 and up to 200 simultaneous pp collisions per bunch crossing.

New technologies like 3D packing of integrated circuits, new smaller electronic processes (65 nm) and new sensor technologies apart from standard silicon have to be considered. We are involved in developing new front end electronics within the RD53 R&D collaboration, which will provide the new hybrid pixel readout chip for the HL-LHC ITk.

Developing new sensor concepts like CMOS Active pixel sensors is another focus of our upgrade investigations, see CMOS Active Pixels for more details. Furthermore we're pursuing now powering schemes, i.e. serial powering and new module integration concepts.



The RD53 collaboration, with more than 20 participating international institutes, is developing tools and designs for the next generation of ITk hybrid pixel readout chips, suitable for the HL-LHC phase II of ATLAS and CMS.

Several new design concepts are implemented both in the analog front-ends and the digital data handling. Due to the high complexity of the digital design, it was necessary to also develop software tools for in-depth simulations, which are capable to cover the full data-path from the pixel cells to the data output drivers.

A large scale demonstrator, called RD53A, was fabricated in 12/2017 and is currently being characterized to verify that the performance requirements are met even after irradiation to a TID of 500 Mrd. The measurements include beam tests at the PI’s accelerator ELSA or the SPS at CERN where RD53A chips with bump-bonded sensors are placed inside a beam telescope setup, to determine the detection efficiency and other performance characteristics.

The results of these investigations will be used to optimize the design. In late 2019, a second and most likely final prototype chip will be manufactured before the large production in 2020.



Fig.1: RD53A prototype chip on the passive adapter "Single Chip Card", which is used for the majority of measurements with bare chips and sensor modules.

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